Currently in exile, prior to the Taliban takeover of Kabul in August 2021, Mustafa was the Executive Director of the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission. Previously, he was the National Program Director of International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) programmes at the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock in the Republic of Afghanistan. Mustafa has worked with different government and non-government institutions, including the Ministry of Finance, USAID and UN de-mining projects.

Mustafa completed his M.B.A. from American University, Afghanistan, and obtained his B.A. in Business Studies form Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK.